To manage of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), transition medicine from pediatric to adult health care is an important process and requires individually optimized approaches. We sent cross-sectional questionnaire surveys on the current status of transition from pediatric to adult health care in 21-OHD patients to all councillors of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology. Many pediatric departments (42.2%) experienced adult 21-OHD patients, and 115 patients (53 males, mean age of 26) in 46 institutions were identified. Whereas almost two-thirds of pediatric endocrinologists regarded the problems of counterparts and cooperation as hindrance of transition medicine, the major reason for continuing to be treated in pediatrics was the patient’s own request. The prevalence of long-term complications including obesity, osteoporosis, infertility, menstrual disorder, gender dysphoria, and testicular adrenal rest tumor were 27.5%, 8.8%, 11.1%, 26.3%, 7.1%, 12.5%, respectively, which is comparable to those of other cohorts previously reported. However, several items, especially infertility and osteoporosis were not checked well enough in adult 21-OHD patients treated in pediatrics. Though 44 of 62 female patients had genital reconstructive surgery, more than half of them were not followed up by gynecologists or pediatric urologists. Quite a few adult 21-OHD patients had been followed up in pediatrics even after coming of age; however, surveillance by pediatric endocrinologists of gynecological, reproductive, and mental problems may be insufficient. Therefore, multidisciplinary approaches should be required in transition medicine for 21-OHD and prerequisite for graduation of pediatrics. Pediatric endocrinologists will need to play a leading role in the development of transition systems.
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