Background: There is no consensus on the adjustment of home oxygen therapy (HOT) and pulmonary hypertension (PH)-specific medications after balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We aimed to examine the status of de-escalation and discontinuation of HOT and PH-specific medications post-BPA and clarify its effect on hemodynamics, biomarkers, and long-term outcomes. Methods: From November 2012 to May 2018, 135 consecutive patients with CTEPH who underwent BPA at a single university hospital were enrolled (age, 63.5 ± 13.5 years; World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC) II, III, IV; 34, 92, 9). Results: The mean pulmonary arterial pressure decreased from 37.7 ± 11.3 to 20.4 ± 5.1 mm Hg 1 year post-BPA (P < 0.01). The proportion of patients who required HOT and combination medical therapy (≥ 2 PH-specific medications) decreased 1 year post-BPA (from 58.5% to 7.4% and from 40.0% to 10.4%, respectively). Baseline factors influencing the requirement of HOT and combination medical therapy post-BPA were almost identical (ie, lower exercise capacity and pulmonary diffusion capacity and worse hemodynamics). Regardless of their discontinuation, the improved hemodynamics, functional capacity (WHO-FC), and biomarkers (B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T) were almost maintained, and no adverse 1-year clinical outcomes (all-cause death and PH-related hospitalization) were observed. Conclusions: Most patients with CTEPH discontinued HOT and PH-specific combination medical therapy post-BPA, which was not associated with the deterioration of hemodynamics, functional capacity, or biomarkers. No long-term adverse outcomes were observed.
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