A valid brand embarrassment tendency scale seeks to measure individual differences in people's proneness to feel embarrassed in relation to brands. Three studies identify potential items and validate the scale. In Study 1, with a sample of 338 German respondents, factor analyses and comprehensive validation procedures indicate one dimension that represents embarrassment tendency in relation to branded products. In Study 2,with a sample of 231 U.S. participants, a confirmatory factor analysis of the one-dimensional scale reveals its nomological validity. Study 3 applies the scale to two specific brands, with acceptable levels of reliability and validity. The results thus suggest the new scale is reliable, valid, parsimonious, and generalizable in two Western cultures. The brand embarrassment construct is useful for both developing theory and providing advice to marketing practitioners.
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