Background: The relationships among socioeconomic status and lifestyle improvements have not yet been examined in a representative Japanese population. Methods: We analyzed data from 2,647 participants (1,087 men and 1,560 women) who participated in NIPPON DATA2010. This survey inquired about lifestyle improvements and socioeconomic status. Education was categorized as low (≤9 years), middle (10–12 years), and high (≥13 years). Marital status was categorized as married, divorced, widowed, and never married= other. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lifestyle improvements with the intention of preventing cardiovascular diseases for educational attainment and marital status, with adjustments for age and awareness of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results: Overall, 1,507 (56.9%) participants practiced prevention and improvements in hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome, and the OR of lifestyle improvements was significantly higher with a high education than with a low education in men (OR 2.86; 95% CI, 1.96–4.17) and women (OR 2.36; 95% CI, 1.67–3.33). The number of participants who practiced prevention and improvements in hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in divorced than in married men (OR 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22–0.95) and women (OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33–0.86). Conclusions: Specific differences caused by educational attainment and marital status may exist in lifestyle improvements.
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