In recent years, wiring and system construction on ultrasoft materials such as biological tissues and hydrogels have been proposed for advanced wearable devices, implantable devices, and soft robotics. Among the soft conductive materials, Ga-based liquid metals (LMs) are both biocompatible and ultrasoft, making them a good match for electrodes on the ultrasoft substrates. However, gels and tissues are softer and less wettable to the LMs than conventional soft substrates such as Ecoflex and polydimethylsiloxane. In this study, we demonstrated the transfer of LM paste composed of Ga-based LM and Ni nanoparticles onto ultrasoft substrates such as biological tissue and gels using sacrificial polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. The LM paste pattern fabricated on the PVA film adhered to the ultrasoft substrate along surface irregularities and was transferred without being destroyed by the PVA film before the PVA's dissolution in water. The minimum line width that could be wired was approximately 165 μm. Three-dimensional wiring, such as the helical structure on the gel fiber surface, is also possible. Application of this transfer method to tissues using LM paste wiring allowed the successful stimulation of the vagus nerve in rats. In addition, we succeeded in transferring a temperature measurement system fabricated on a PVA film onto the gel. The connection between the solid-state electrical element and the LM paste was stable and maintained the functionality of the temperature-sensing system. This fundamental study of wiring fabrication and system integration can contribute to the development of advanced electric devices based on ultrasoft substrates.
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