OX40 is an important costimulatory molecule for T-cell expansion and survival. Because OX40 is expressed on most T-cell subsets, it is an attractive therapeutic target for a variety of T-cell‒mediated diseases. Clinical trials are already underway for some skin inflammatory diseases. In this review, we present various observations that improve our understanding of how OX40-targeted therapy can be applied for skin inflammatory diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, T helper (Th)2- and Th17-mediated diseases, respectively. The important OX40/OX40L-mediated interaction between T cells and other immune cells is also discussed in terms of skin autoimmune diseases, such as alopecia areata and pemphigus. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) highly express OX40, and the skin harbors a large Treg population; thus, understanding how OX40-targeted treatment acts on Tregs is vital for the development of therapeutic strategies for various skin diseases.
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