The relation between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population is well elucidated. In patients with CKD, anemia is associated with adverse outcomes. However, the effects of CKD and anemia on CVD in the general population remains poorly explored, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CKD and/or anemia on CVD mortality in a long-term cohort study involving Japanese community dwellers. We assessed 7,339 participants (aged ≥30 years) with no CVD history. These participants were divided into 4 categories according to their CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 or urine protein >1+ by dipstick qualitative test) and/or anemia (hemoglobin: <13 g/100 ml [men], <12 g/100 ml [women]) statuses. For each category, we calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality by using the Cox proportional hazards model after adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and alcohol drinking. Within 25 years of follow-up, 637 participants died because of CVD. The HRs of CVD in patients with CKD only, anemia only, and both were 1.27, 1.59, and 2.60 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.06 to 1.53, 1.34 to 1.90, and 1.80 to 3.76) in men and 1.42, 1.08, and 2.00 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69, 0.99 to 1.18, and 1.54 to 2.60) in women, respectively. In conclusion, CKD with anemia is associated with an increased risk for CVD mortality in a general population in Japan.
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