Background and Aims: Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 (CHST15) promotes tumor growth and invasion and is considered to be an emergent therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EUS-guided fine-needle injection (EUS-FNI) of STNM01, the double-stranded RNA oligonucleotide that specifically represses CHST15, for use in patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: Six patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, treated at Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, were used in this open-labeled, investigator-initiated trial. A total of 16 mL STNM01 (250 nM) was injected into the tumor through EUS-FNI. The study's primary endpoint was safety, with a secondary endpoint of tumor response 4 weeks after the initial injection. Some patients received a series of infusions as extensions. The local expression of CHST15 and overall survival (OS) were also evaluated. Results: There were no adverse events. The mean tumor diameter changed from 30.7 to 29.3 mm 4 weeks after injection. Four patients exhibited necrosis of tumor in biopsy specimens. CHST15 was highly expressed at baseline, with 2 patients showing large reductions of CHST15 at week 4. The mean OS of these 2 patients was 15 months, whereas it was 5.7 months for the other 4 patients. Conclusions: EUS-FNI of STNM01 in pancreatic cancer is safe and feasible. The CHST15 reduction could predict tumor progression and OS. Injections of STNM01 during the beginning of treatment may reduce CHST15 and warrants further investigation.
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