Background and Aim: Sitafloxacin-containing Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is a promising third-line therapeutic approach, but there is no previous studies between gyrA mutation status of H. pylori strains and the efficacy of 10-day sitafloxacin-containing regimens. Here, we assessed the efficacy of 2 different 10-day sitafloxacin-containing rescue regimens. Methods: Patients who failed first- and second-line eradication therapies were enrolled. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of sitafloxacin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole and the gyrA mutation status of the H. pylori strains were determined before treatment. The patients were randomized to receive a 10-day triple therapy containing either esomeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.), amoxicillin (500 mg, q.i.d.), and sitafloxacin (100 mg, b.i.d.) (EAS regimen) or esomeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.), metronidazole (250 mg, b.i.d.), and sitafloxacin (100 mg, b.i.d.) (EMS regimen). Eradication rates were evaluated by the [13C] urea breath test or the H. pylori stool antigen test. Results: All patients with gyrA mutation-negative strains (24 in EAS and 16 in EMS) showed successful eradication, irrespective of the regimen they received. In patients with gyrA mutation-positive strains, we found eradication rates of 70.3% (26/37) and 66.7% (26/39) in the EAS and EMS groups in per-protocol population, respectively (p =.81). According to logistic regression analyses, the MICs of sitafloxacin, which were strongly associated with gyrA mutation status, were independently associated with successful eradication in both groups. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000006483. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the eradication rates between EAS and EMS, regardless of the gyrA mutation status of the H. pylori strains. GyrA mutation status was an important factor in predicting successful eradication with sitafloxacin-containing rescue therapies.
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