The corpus callosum (CC) is present in all primate brains and is the major white matter tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres for integration of sensory, motor and higher-order cognitive information. The midsagittal area of the CC has frequently been used as a sensitive biomarker of brain development. Although the marmoset has been considered as an alternative non-human primate model for neuroscience research, the developmental patterns of the CC have not been explored. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that marmosets show a rapid increase of CC during infancy, followed by a slow increase during the juvenile stage, as observed in chimpanzees and humans. Marmosets also show a tendency toward a greater increase in CC during late infancy and the juvenile stage, as observed in humans, but not in chimpanzees. However, several differences between marmosets and humans were identified. There was a tendency toward a greater maturation of the human CC during early infancy. Furthermore, there was a tendency toward a greater increase during late infancy and the juvenile stage in marmosets, compared to that observed in chimpanzees and humans. These differences in the developmental trajectories of the CC may be related to evolutional changes in social behavior.
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