The endoscopic diagnosis of biliary tract lesions is applied as a non-invasive method; however, its diagnostic accuracy is not yet high. Moreover, digital cholangioscopy is used for directly visualizing the inside of the bile duct, resulting in a more precise biopsy. We present the case series of the outcomes of diagnosis using digital cholangioscopy in patients who underwent cholangioscopy for the evaluation of biliary stenosis in our department between January 2014 and March 2021. The controls were those who underwent a biopsy for biliary stenosis with conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Background data for each case were collected, and the clinical outcomes by biopsy were evaluated, focusing on the accuracy of the diagnosis. Cholangioscopy was performed in 15 cases, while a conventional biopsy by ERCP was performed in 172 cases. Nine of 15 cases (60.0%) were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma. The number of specimens obtained through conventional ERCP and cholangioscopy was 2.5 ± 1.3 and 3.3 ± 1.5, respectively (p = 0.043). The diagnostic accuracy of conventional ERCP and cholangioscopy were 65.7% (113 of 172 cases) and 100%, respectively, which was significantly higher in the group with cholangioscopy. Digital cholangioscopy is useful when the diagnosis of the biliary stricture using the conventional ERCP method is difficult.
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