Introduction: To prospectively clarify whether endoscopic contact laser vaporization of the prostate (CVP) can be safely performed even in patients undergoing antithrombotic therapy. Methods: Fifty-five patients treated with CVP were enrolled. Patients were assigned to: (i) the antithrombotic therapy group (n = 21, 38%); or (ii) control group without antithrombotic therapy (n = 34, 62%). All patients in the antithrombotic therapy group continued all antithrombotic agents during the perioperative period and thereafter. Results: No difference was noted in patient background between the two groups. In primary endpoints, decreases in the postoperative hemoglobin level were remarkable in the antithrombotic therapy group, while no serious effects were noted in either group. The control and antithrombotic therapy groups did not show a significant difference in the occurrence of catheter obstruction due to blood clots or serious hematuria following catheter removal. During follow-up, transurethral coagulation for hemostasis was needed only in the antithrombotic therapy group, with a frequency of transurethral coagulation of up to 14%. In secondary endpoints, no difference in the occurrence of perioperative or late-onset complications after surgery was noted between the two groups. Finally, no difference was noted in improvements in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS quality of life score, overactive bladder symptom score, maximum flow rate, or post-voiding residual urine volume between the two groups throughout the follow-up period. Conclusions: CVP can be performed safely and effectively in patients undergoing continuous antithrombotic therapy. However, the possibility of secondary bleeding after discharge in a subset of patients, such as those undergoing antithrombotic therapy, may be noted.
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