Sensors rely on a plurality of transduction methods, and among the available selections, electrochemical techniques offer the peculiar advantage of an easy interfacing between biological recognition elements and electronic signal transduction processes. Furthermore, electrochemical devices are qualified for decentralized point-of-care testing as they can be easily downsized and made at low cost for a wide range of potential applications, for example biomedical or environmental. Electrochemical methods of transduction differ for the technique used, as it can be voltammetry, chronoamperometry, impedance spectroscopy, or electrochemiluminescence. The latter is peculiar among electrochemical techniques since in electrochemiluminescence the analytical signal is light emission, and this offers several advantages, mainly related to background suppression and detection limit, combined with fast measurement. This review introduces the principles of enzyme biosensors coupled with electrochemiluminescence transduction, summarises the research, and finally highlights the strategies to take full advantage of this detection method.
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