Background:Spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection is a rare condition, and its clinical and angiographic courses are poorly defined. We aimed to monitor the morphological characteristics of spontaneous isolated SMA dissection using computed tomography (CT) over 2 years of follow-up, including the recovery process via vascular remodeling, and identify the factors that affect vascular remodeling using univariate analysis. Methods and Results: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and morphological findings of 59 consecutive patients with spontaneous isolated SMA dissection between October 2007 and July 2014, which included 36 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic patients. Surgical intervention with open laparotomy was required in 3 patients during the follow-up period; 41 patients who received conservative treatment were followed up over 2 years with regular CT. Complete remodeling was achieved in 16 of 25 symptomatic patients who were treated conservatively (64.0%). A patent false lumen and aneurysmal formation on an initial CT scan were identified as negative factors that affected remodeling in patients with spontaneous isolated SMA dissection. Conclusions: Conservative management of spontaneous isolated SMA dissection is associated with a good prognosis, both clinically and morphologically. Surgical intervention is only required in patients with severe intestinal ischemia or rapid aneurysmal enlargement.
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