Objective: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit deficits in executive function. Since there are no clear biomarkers for the disorder, this study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological biomarkers for deficits in executive function in children with ADHD using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography. Methods: Twenty patients diagnosed with ADHD and 19 typically developing children (TDC; 8–11 years old) were included. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded using an electroencephalogram (EEG) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (Oxy-Hb) were recorded using fNIRS during a colored Go/NoGo task, simultaneously. Latencies and amplitudes of NoGo-N2 and NoGo/Go-P3 tasks were measured using EEG. Results: Children with ADHD showed significantly decreased Oxy-Hb in the right frontal cortex as well as longer NoGo-P3 latencies and a decreased NoGo/Go-P3 amplitude. There was a significant positive correlation between the Oxy-Hb and NoGo/Go-P3 amplitude. Conclusions: These results suggest that children with ADHD experience executive dysfunction. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological findings during the Go/NoGo task might be useful as a biomarker of executive function. Significance: These findings have key implications for understanding the pathophysiology of deficits in executive function in ADHD.
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