Background: The survival of patients with high-risk, refractory, relapsed, or metastatic solid tumors remains dismal. A poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor could be effective for the treatment of pediatric solid tumors with defective homologous recombination. Methods: This open-label, multicenter phase 1 clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors to recommend a dose for Phase 2 trials. Olaparib (62.5, 125, and 187.5 mg/m2 twice daily) was administered orally every day (1 cycle = 28 days) using a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Patients aged 3–18 years with recurrent pediatric solid tumors were eligible. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses were performed. Results: Fifteen patients were enrolled and received olaparib monotherapy, which was well tolerated. The recommended phase 2 dose for daily administration was 187.5 mg/m2 twice daily. Pharmacokinetics were dose proportional. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h and the peak plasma concentration for 187.5 mg/m2 twice daily in children were comparable to previous data obtained in a 200-mg, twice-daily cohort and lower than those in the 300-mg twice-daily cohort in adults. Pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated substantial inhibition of PARP activity. Two partial responses were observed in patients with Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma. Conclusions: This report is the first clinical trial to describe the use of a PARP inhibitor as monotherapy in children. Olaparib was well tolerated, with preliminary antitumor responses observed in DNA damage response-defective pediatric tumors. Lay summary: This Phase 1 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of olaparib in patients with refractory childhood solid tumors. Olaparib was well tolerated, achieving objective response in 2/15 patients. The DNA damage response was attenuated in nearly one-half of advanced neuroblastoma patients, demonstrating the utility of the PARP inhibitor. The results support further investigation of olaparib as a new treatment for DNA damage-response or repair-defective pediatric cancers.
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