Objectives: BK polyomavirus (BKV) causes two distinct complications after transplantation, hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) after kidney transplantation (KT). Although fluoroquinolones show efficacy against BKV proliferation in vitro, the clinical effect remains uncertain; thus, we performed meta-analysis to assess its efficacy in the prophylaxis. Methods: Articles published before March 2020 were searched from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, ISRCTN registry, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Primary outcomes were BKV-HC after HSCT and BKVAN after KT. Secondary outcomes were BK viremia, viruria after KT, and fluoroquinolone-related adverse events. Results: Three trials with 281 patients post-HSCT and 11 trials with 1882 patients post KT were included as for prophylaxis. Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis did not show effects on BKV-HC (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.13-2.25), BKVAN (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.35-1.55), and BK viremia (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49-1.28), but significantly decreased BK viruria (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.91). Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis was associated with the higher percentage of fluoroquinolone-resistant infection among identified bacteria (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.16-4.88), but the incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant infection was similar (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.71-1.86), due to the decrease of infection itself (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.81). Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that fluoroquinolones did not prevent BKV-HC after HSCT or BKVAN after KT, although the effect against BKV-HC should be further investigated by randomized controlled trials. Fluoroquinolones could reduce the rate of BK viruria to some extent but may not have clinically sufficient effects.
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