Purpose: Some reports have shown that the cause of type 1 diabetes is associated with dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The FOXP3/ Scurfin gene is known to be a master gene of Tregs. Therefore, we tried to analyze the relation between the gene polymorphism and adult onset type 1 diabetes and its subtype in the Japanese population. Methods: Inthis study, we recruited 316 Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes (155 male and 161 female, mean onset age 35.4 years) and 432 healthy Japanese controls (263 male and 169 female, mean age 44.4 years). Then we subdivided the patients by onset type, sex, and islet-associated autoantibody positivity. Results: The genotype frequency of (GT)16/(GT)16 in female patients with overall type 1 diabetes was especially lower than that in controls (19.9% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.0002). Moreover, the genotype frequency of (GT)16/(GT)16 in female patients with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes was significantly lower than that in controls (15.4% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Our data showed that the (GT)n microsatelloite polymorphism in the FOXP3/Scrufin gene was associated with Japanese adult onset type 1 diabetes, especially in females, and slowly progressive type 1 diabetes.
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