Background: Frailty results in a high risk for disability, hospitalization, and mortality. This study aimed to investigate perioperative details of frail patients who underwent pancreatectomy and whether frailty can be a predictive factor of postoperative complications, especially of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF). Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent pancreatectomy in our hospital between August 2016 and March 2019. The patients were divided into frail and pre-/non-frail groups. The diagnostic criteria were based on the Japanese version of the Cardiovascular Health Study. Results: Of 93 patients, 11 (11.8%) and 82 (88.2%) were frail and pre-/non-frail patients, with median ages of 82 and 72 years, respectively (p = 0.041). Postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo ≧ IIIa) were found in 8 and 32 patients (p = 0.034), CR-POPF in 3 and 13 patients (p = 0.346), and postoperative hospital stays were 21 and 17 days (p = 0.041), respectively. On multivariate analysis, frailty was an independent predictive factor (odds ratio [OR] 5.604, 95.0% confidence interval [CI] 1.002-30.734; p = 0.047) of postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo ≧ IIIa) after pancreaticoduodenectomy. On multivariate analysis, a soft pancreas (OR 5.696, 95.0% CI 1.142-28.149; p = 0.034) was an independent and significant predictive factor of CR-POPF after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Conclusions: Frailty may be a useful predictive factor of postoperative complications in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy.
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