The electric motorcycles have drawn much attention in recent years because of their portability and high flexibility, in which they became popular in many countries. However, balancing these devices in full-speed range, which is a valuable research within the countries heading to an aging society, has not been thoroughly researched. In this paper, a novel handlebar-free self-balancing electric motorcycle is put forward to cover this deficiency. By controlling the steering, the motorcycle can self balance by keeping its wheels swaying. Furthermore, three different steering modes of the motorcycle were discussed. A brief comparison about these modes was shown through several experiments. In order to achieve a full-speed range self-balancing motorcycle system, two different phase modes were applied in zero/low speed and normal/high speed, respectively. Finally, their stability was analyzed and proved.
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