Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with no established treatment. To better understand the pathology and develop a treatment modality for SCI, an understanding of the physiological changes following SCI at the molecular level is essential. However, studies on SCI have primarily used rodent models, and few studies have examined SCI in non-human primates. In this study, we analyzed the temporal changes in gene expression patterns following SCI in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) using microarray analysis and mRNA deep sequencing. This analysis revealed that, although the sequence of events is comparable between primates and rodents, the inflammatory response following SCI is significantly prolonged and the onset of glial scar formation is temporally delayed in primates compared with rodents. These observations indicate that the optimal time window to treat SCI significantly differs among different species. This study provides the first extensive analysis of gene expression following SCI in non-human primates and will serve as a valuable resource in understanding the pathology of SCI.
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