Ribosome biogenesis is an energetically expensive program that is dictated by nutrient availability. Here we report that nutrient deprivation severely impairs precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) processing and leads to the accumulation of unprocessed rRNAs. Upon nutrient restoration, pre-rRNAs stored under starvation are processed into mature rRNAs that are utilized for ribosome biogenesis. Failure to accumulate pre-rRNAs under nutrient stress leads to perturbed ribosome assembly upon nutrient restoration and subsequent apoptosis via uL5/uL18-mediated activation of p53. Restoration of glutamine alone activates p53 by triggering uL5/uL18 translation. Induction of uL5/uL18 protein synthesis by glutamine is dependent on the translation factor eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which is in turn dependent on Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. Depriving cells of glutamine prevents the activation of p53 by rRNA synthesis inhibitors. Our data reveals a mechanism that tumor cells can exploit to suppress p53-mediated apoptosis during fluctuations in environmental nutrient availability.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 化学 (全般)