To achieve a successful pregnancy in humans, sperm is required for capacitation, followed by binding to and entry into an oocyte. Maternal endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) prepare the appropriate implantation environment through regulation of immune cells and endometrial cells. After acquiring endometrial receptivity, a successful pregnancy consists of complex and finely regulated steps involving apposition, adhesion, invasion, and penetration. Glycodelin is a secretory glycoprotein that affects cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and motility. Glycodelin has four glycoforms (glycodelin-A, -S, -F. and -C); differences in glycosylation affect each characteristic function. Glycodelin has a unique temporospatial pattern of expression, primarily in the reproductive tract where glycodelin is mid-secretory phase-dominant. Recent studies have demonstrated that glycodelin protein has the potential to regulate various processes, including immunosuppression, fertilization, and implantation. This review details the orchestrated regulation of successful pregnancy by glycodelin as well as a discussion of the basic characteristics of glycodelin.
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