The roles of B and plasma cells in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are largely unrevealed. Data on the characteristics of IgG4 in patients with IBD are scarce. In this case-control study, serum IgG4 levels were comparable between patients with IBD and healthy individuals, whereas patients with IBD had dramatically higher mucosal IgG4 counts than healthy individuals. In patients with UC, mucosal IgG4 counts were positively correlated with serum IgG4 levels, serum IgG4/IgG ratios, and the Mayo Index; serum IgG4 levels and IgG4/IgG ratios were associated with a history of intestinal surgery and medications. A significant mucosal IgG4 count was found in 33.3% of patients with IBD, whereas, elevated serum IgG4 levels were found in only 9.9% of patients with IBD. Lesions were more severe and extensive in IBD patients with high levels of serum and mucosal IgG4. High levels of serum and mucosal IgG4 decreased after treatment with glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressants. High IgG4 level may be a biomarker for a new subset of IBD. More studies are warranted to explore this new subset of IBD for personalized therapy in the future.
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