In this study, we develop a higher-order asymptotic theory of shrinkage estimation for general statistical models, which includes dependent processes, multivariate models, and regression models (i.e., non-independent and identically distributed models). We introduce a shrinkage estimator of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and compare it with the standard MLE by using the third-order mean squared error. A sufficient condition for the shrinkage estimator to improve the MLE is given in a general setting. Our model is described as a curved statistical model p(⋅;θ(u)), where θ is a parameter of the larger model and u is a parameter of interest with dimu<dimθ. This setting is especially suitable for estimating portfolio coefficients u based on the mean and variance parameters θ. We finally provide the results of our numerical study and discuss an interesting feature of the shrinkage estimator.
ASJC Scopus subject areas