Cranial nerve III palsy, also known as oculomotor nerve palsy, may result from various causes; however, the etiology remains unknown in some instances. The aim of this case report is to present the authors' experience with two cases of idiopathic cranial nerve III palsy, together with a review of the literature. Case 1 is a 78-year-old woman and case 2 is a 75-year-old man, both having no history of trauma and no vascular risk factors. They presented to the authors' hospital with diplopia and palpebral ptosis and were diagnosed with idiopathic unilateral cranial nerve III palsy. They received oral steroids for treatment. One patient recovered completely within 3 months, while the other patient did not recover regardless of long-term follow-up. Idiopathic cranial nerve III palsy can occur in otherwise healthy individuals and often recover in several months. Careful examinations to rule out other causes and then steroid treatment should be considered after early diagnosis.
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