Overview Image sensors are used in digital cameras and a large number of imaging devices for industrial, media, medical, and consumer electronics applications. An image sensor consists of a number of pixels; each pixel contains a photodiode (PD), which is generally used as a receiver in visible light communications (VLC). Thus, an image sensor consisting of a number of pixels can also be used as a VLC receiver. A particular advantage of using image sensors, due to the massive number of available pixels, is the ability to spatially separate sources. Owing to the spatial separation of multiple sources, the VLC receiver uses only the pixels that sense LED transmission sources, discarding other pixels, including those sensing ambient noise. The ability to spatially separate sources also provides an additional feature to VLC, i.e., the ability to receive and process multiple transmitting sources. In this chapter, we introduce VLC using an image sensor . After presenting an overview of image sensors in Section 9.2, we introduce the use of an image sensor as a VLC receiver in Section 9.3. We provide a design of an image sensor based VLC system in Section 9.4. In Sections 9.5 and 9.6, we respectively introduce the following two unique applications of VLC systems using an image sensor: (1) massively parallel visible light transmission that can theoretically achieve a maximum data rate of 1.28 Gigabits per second; and (2) accurate sensor pose estimation that cannot be realized by a VLC system using a single-element PD. Applications of image sensor based communication are also presented in Section 9.7 for traffic signal communication, position measurements in civil engineering, and bridge position monitoring. Finally, in Section 9.8, we summarize our conclusions.
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