To understand immune responses to human cancer and develop more effective immunotherapy, human tumor antigens has been isolated using various immunological methods with tumor reactive T cells or antibodies obtained from patients with melanoma. During the process of tumor antigen isolation, various molecules with genetic alterations or over-expression in tumor cells, which may be involved in proliferation, differentiation, or survival of various cancer cells, were identified. In melanoma, abnormal molecules with mutations including β -catenin, CDK4, and BRAF, and molecules with increased expression including Survivin, were immunologically detected. Therefore, immunological isolation of human tumor antigens contributes to the identification of important molecules including altered signaling molecules involved in melanoma formation.
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