Objectives: Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are risk factors for severe COVID-19. However, limited literature exists on the effect of COPD and smoking on COVID-19 outcomes. This study examined the impact of smoking exposure in pack-years (PY) and COPD on COVID-19 outcomes among smokers in Japan. Methods: The study included 1266 smokers enrolled by the Japan COVID-19 task force between February 2020 and December 2021. PY and COPD status was self-reported by patients. Patients were classified into the non-COPD (n = 1151) and COPD (n = 115) groups; the non-COPD group was further classified into <10 PY (n = 293), 10-30 PY (n = 497), and >30 PY (n = 361). The study outcome was the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Results: The incidence of IMV increased with increasing PY and was highest in the COPD group (<10 PY = 7.8%, 10-30 PY = 12.3%, >30 PY = 15.2%, COPD = 26.1%; P <0.001). A significant association was found for IMV requirement in the >30 PY and COPD groups through univariate (odds ratio [OR]: >30 PY = 2.11, COPD = 4.14) and multivariate (OR: >30 PY = 2.38; COPD = 7.94) analyses. Increasing PY number was also associated with increased IMV requirement in patients aged <65 years. Conclusion: Cumulative smoking exposure was positively associated with COVID-19 outcomes in smokers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas