Aim: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection from blood products for hemophilia has been a social problem in Japan, and liver transplantation (LT) for these patients has been a challenging procedure. However, with the advent of the direct-acting antiviral agent for HCV and change in the policy for prioritization of deceased donor LT, the results of LT for patients co-infected with HCV/HIV may have improved. Methods: This study was conducted to provide updated results of our nationwide survey of LT for patients co-infected with HCV/HIV, from January 1997 to December 2019. We collected data on 17 patients with HIV/HCV co-infection who underwent either deceased donor LT (n = 5) or living donor LT (n = 12). Results: All the patients were men with hemophilia, and the median age was 41 (range, 23–61) years. The median CD4 count before LT was 258 (range, 63–751). Most patients had poor liver function before surgery with Child–Pugh grade C and a Model for End-stage Liver Disease score of 20 (range, 11–48). The right lobe was used for most grafts for living donor liver transplantation (n = 10). Overall survival was significantly better with a sustained viral response (SVR) than without an SVR, and a univariate analysis indicated that SVR after direct-acting antiviral or interferon/ribavirin showed the highest hazard ratio for patient survival after LT. A multivariate analysis was not possible because of the limited number of cases. Conclusion: SVR for HCV showed the highest impact on the outcome of LT for patients with hemophilia co-infected with HIV/HCV. SVR for HCV should be achieved before or after LT for patients with hemophilia co-infected with HIV/HCV for a better outcome.
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