Objectives: To determine the incidence and location of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Methods: We performed radical cystectomy in 137 patients with bladder cancer between August 2014 and February 2020. Since 2014, we have had a policy to screen for deep vein thrombosis using lower extremity ultrasonography both before and after radical cystectomy. We determined the incidence and location of deep vein thrombosis and classified it as either proximal or distal type. Furthermore, we explored the incidence of pulmonary embolism within 3 months after radical cystectomy. Results: After excluding six patients with a lack of ultrasonographic data, we evaluated 131 patients. Preoperative deep vein thrombosis (one proximal and 17 distal) was diagnosed in 18 patients (14%) with no symptoms. Postoperative deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed in 41 patients (31%; three proximal and 38 distal), of whom 26 (63%) had new-onset deep vein thrombosis after cystectomy. Three patients, two with proximal and one with distal type deep vein thrombosis, developed nonfatal pulmonary embolism postoperatively. Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative D-dimer levels (odds ratio 5.35, 95% confidence interval 1.74–16.50; P < 0.003), type of urinary diversion (ileal neobladder; odds ratio 11.15, 95% confidence interval 2.16–57.55; P = 0.004), and preoperative deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio 15.93, 95% confidence interval 3.82–66.30; P < 0.001) were significant risk factors for postoperative deep vein thrombosis. Conclusions: Pre- and post-radical cystectomy whole-leg ultrasonography can lead to an early perioperative diagnosis and immediate treatment of proximal deep vein thrombosis, thereby potentially preventing fatal pulmonary embolism.
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