Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS: single-fraction stereotactic irradiation) was originally developed to treat benign lesions in the brain, and has been adopted for the treatment of small primary or metastatic brain tumours. It has recently been recommended that stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT: fractionated stereotactic irradiation) be applied to the treatment of brain tumours; however, it requires much more time and work than SRS, and sufficient radiobiological evaluations of these techniques have never been carried out. Biologically effective doses were calculated to determine the indications for SRS and SRT, and to decide on an effective SRT schedule, incorporating the factors of 'repair' and 'cell proliferation'. The results suggest that SRS would be recommended for arteriovenous malformations and benign tumours that have distinct margins separating them from surrounding normal tissue and SRT would be recommended for benign or malignant brain tumours without clearly defined boundaries. The recommended SRT schedules would be 7 Gy x 7 fractions every other day for malignant tumours and 3.5 Gy x 12 fractions every other day for benign tumours. However, clinically, these schedules should be modified according to many other factors in individual cases.
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