Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign osteoblastic tumor characterized by nocturnal pain that responds well to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This condition commonly affects adolescents and young adults, and patients between 5 and 24 years of age account for 85% of all OO cases; it occurs very rarely in patients under 5 years old. Tumors often occur in the cortical bone in the diaphysis and metaphysis of the appendicular skeleton and are more common in the lower extremities than upper extremities. Here, we present an extremely rare case of intramedullary OO that arose in the proximal metaphysis of the humerus in a 2-year-old boy, which mimicked subacute osteomyelitis on imaging studies. We also conducted a retrospective literature review and found that the intramedullary location was fairly common in very young patients (<6 years old) with OO.
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