To prevent denosumab-induced hypocalcemia in patients with renal dysfunction, combination therapy with 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (active vitamin D) is recommended. We previously developed a risk prediction model for hypocalcemia in patients with cholecalciferol/calcium (natural vitamin D). However, the prescription status and the risk factors of patients with active vitamin D have not been identified, so we designed this retrospective observational study using a large practice database covering June 2013 to May 2020 to analyze prescription status and risk factors. Patients were classified according to vitamin D type. After that, factors associated with development of hypocalcemia in patients with active vitamin D were explored. Univariate analysis was conducted to compare patient backgrounds between the hypocalcemia and nonhypocalcemia groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive potential of the extracted factors. Of the 33442 patients who received denosumab, 22347 and 3560 patients were co-administered natural and active vitamin D, respectively. Patients with active vitamin D had significantly lower renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) median: 74.0 vs. 69.7 mL/min/1.73 m2), but some patients (23.6%) with sufficient renal function (eGFR _90) were also receiving active vitamin D. Of the 3560 patients with active vitamin D, non-hypocalcemia (n _ 166) and hypocalcemia (n _ 17) groups who met the study criteria were analyzed. Renal function was lower in the hypocalcemia group, and alkaline phosphatase gave the best discrimination. High aspartate aminotransferase (AST), renal dysfunction, high alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and low hemoglobin may be significant factors in risk prediction for hypocalcemia in patients with active vitamin D.
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