Purpose: Some clinical studies have reported the occurrence of nausea and vomiting with linezolid (LZD) administration. However, no studies have evaluated nausea and vomiting as primary endpoints. In a previous study, we noted a possible relationship between LZD and vomiting, but risk factors were not identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify them. Methods: Patients who received LZD 600 mg twice daily at Hokkaido University Hospital from September 2008 to April 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Patient characteristics, concomitant medications, laboratory data, and the occurrence of vomiting were obtained from electronic medical records. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for vomiting, including age, sex, body weight, concomitant medications, and surgeries. Results: A total of 496 patients were included in this study, of which 90 experienced vomiting. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62–4.47), ≥ 10 days of LZD administration (aOR, 2.57; CI, 1.46–4.50), and hyponatraemia (aOR, 2.96; CI, 1.72–5.10) were identified as independent risk factors for vomiting; administration of serotonergic agents (aOR, 0.23; CI, 0.07–0.82) was negatively associated. Conclusions: This study is the first to successfully identify risk factors for LZD-induced vomiting. Careful monitoring of patients with these risk factors may lead to safer and sustainable LZD administration.
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