Caldorazole (1) was isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Caldora sp. collected on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan. Its structure was determined to be a new polyketide that contained two thiazole rings and an O-methylenolpyruvamide moiety. Caldorazole (1) showed strong cytotoxicity toward tumor cells that had been seeded at a high density. Cell death induced by 1 in HeLa and A431 cells was also observed only in the presence of the glycolysis blocker 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG). Co-treatment with 1 and 2DG remarkably decreased ATP levels in these cells. Furthermore, 1 selectively inhibited complex I in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Thus, 1 was demonstrated to exert cytotoxicity toward human tumor cells by blocking mitochondrial respiration. 2022 American Chemical Society.
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