Background: There have been few empirical studies to explain the individual differences in and the underlying mechanism behind the Job Demand-Control (DC) Model. Purpose: This study examined the lagged effects of active coping on stress responses (i.e., psychological distress and physical complaints) in the context of the DC Model using three-wave panel survey data with intervals of one month. Method: Participants were 193 employees working in a construction machinery company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine whether or not the effectiveness of active coping would be facilitated by job control as a coping resource. Results: The advantage of job control in combination with active coping became obvious after one month, which implies that job control has a delayed effect on coping effectiveness. However, the advantage disappeared after two months. These results suggest that the advantage of job control for active coping is limited in time. Conclusion: Conceptualization of job control as a coping resource seems to be useful in explaining how the DC Model influences employees' health, where time plays an important role.
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