We propose a light-emitting diode (LED) flat lighting panel that is capable of seamless connection by optimizing the shape of the optical elements, as well as the concentration of the scattering particles used in the diffuser material. The LED flat lighting panels that we develop can be connected to other panels while maintaining a uniformity of 90% throughout the entire surface. The results of subjective experiments reveal that the seams between the connected LED flat panels are virtually unnoticeable. We also discuss the optimal lighting designs for using the LED flat lighting panels as bracket lighting and ceiling lighting by measuring their primary optical characteristics. In particular, the unified glare rating of the seamless panel is 19.4, which corresponds to the minimum level of uncomfortable glare. Moreover, the seamless panel exhibits a luminous efficiency as high as 79.6 lm/W, which satisfies Energy Star requirements. These evaluations show that the LED flat panel is capable of providing comfortable space and lighting designs for architecture in an environmentally friendly manner.
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