During the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been important to both minimize the risk of infection and restore daily life. As a typical example, mass gathering events, such as sporting events, are gradually becoming more common, thanks to the measures taken to contain COVID-19. Some pilot studies have been launched at governments' initiative to investigate the risk of infection without measures such as face masks and physical distancing at mass gathering events, but the ethics of these studies should be carefully considered. On the other hand, it is still beneficial to implement infection control measures at mass gathering events and, in parallel, to estimate the risk of infection with measures in place, especially under a lack of vaccination progress or the spread of mutant strains possibly resistant to vaccines. To help improve compliance with measures taken by spectators and organizers and to ensure their effectiveness, we have conducted quantitative evaluations of the implementation of such measures by monitoring CO2 concentrations, assessing the proportion of people wearing face masks and analysing human flow at the event. This approach allows us to share our observations with stakeholders and participants, enabling us to protect the culture of mass gathering events, minimize the risk of infection and restore a sense of well-being in daily life.
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