We aimed to clarify the pathophysiological significance of total bilirubin (TB) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This was a cross-sectional study that included 616 pregnant Japanese women (368 normal glucose tolerance [NGT] and 248 GDM). Serum TB concentration, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and other clinical parameters were compared in NGT and GDM women. TB concentration was also compared according to the number of abnormal OGTT values. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between TB and GDM prevalence. A multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between TB and HOMA-IR. TB concentrations were significantly lower in GDM women than in NGT women. This result did not change after adjustments for TB sampling timing were made. Out of 248 GDM women, the prevalences of 1-and 2/3-abnormal OGTT values (1-and 2/3-AV) GDM were 72.2% (n = 179) and 27.8% (n = 69), respectively. In the multiple comparisons, TB concentrations were significantly lower in women with 2/3-AV GDM than in women with NGT and 1-AV GDM. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that TB was a significantly associated factor for 2/3-AV, but not for total GDM. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in GDM women than in NGT women. The univariate, but not multivariate, analysis showed that TB was a significantly associated factor for HOMA-IR. Our findings suggest that hypobilirubinemia may be involved in the pathogenesis of GDM.
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