Acute kidney injury (AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The traditional risk model provided by the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) is useful for predicting the preprocedural risk of AKI, although the scoring system requires a number of clinical contents. We sought to examine whether machine learning (ML) techniques could predict AKI with fewer NCDR-AKI risk model variables within a comparable PCI database in Japan. We evaluated 19,222 consecutive patients undergoing PCI between 2008 and 2019 in a Japanese multicenter registry. AKI was defined as an absolute or a relative increase in serum creatinine of 0.3 mg/dL or 50%. The data were split into training (N = 16,644; 2008–2017) and testing datasets (N = 2578; 2017–2019). The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated using the light gradient boosting model (GBM) with selected variables by Lasso and SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) methods among 12 traditional variables, excluding the use of an intra-aortic balloon pump, since its use was considered operator-dependent. The incidence of AKI was 9.4% in the cohort. Lasso and SHAP methods demonstrated that seven variables (age, eGFR, preprocedural hemoglobin, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina, heart failure symptoms, and cardiogenic shock) were pertinent. AUC calculated by the light GBM with seven variables had a performance similar to that of the conventional logistic regression prediction model that included 12 variables (light GBM, AUC [training/testing datasets]: 0.779/0.772; logistic regression, AUC [training/testing datasets]: 0.797/0.755). The AKI risk model after PCI using ML enabled adequate risk quantification with fewer variables. ML techniques may aid in enhancing the international use of validated risk models.
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