BACKGROUND Evidence has been published on the successful applications of the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody infliximab, such as induction therapy, salvage treatment for acute cellular rejection, and treatment for chronic ulcerative inflammation, in intestinal transplant recipients. However, the optimal protocol for the effective use of infliximab remains largely undetermined due to scarcity of available clinical data. We report a continuative application of infliximab as maintenance therapy for recurrent chronic ulcerative ileitis in a recipient of isolated intestinal transplantation (ITx). CASE SUMMARY The patient was a 11-year-old boy with intestinal motility disorder classified as a hypogenic type of intestinal dysganglionosis. The patient underwent living-donor related intestinal transplant. His immunosuppression regimen consisted of daclizumab, tacrolimus, and steroids. Although he did not show rejection while on tacrolimus monotherapy, routine screening endoscopy showed several ulcerative lesions in the distal end of the graft 2 years after the intestinal transplant. Endoscopic work up to evaluate the progression of anemia revealed stenosis with ulcerative inflammatory changes and multiple longitudinal ulcers in the graft. Since the endoscopic findings suggested ulcerative lesions in Crohn's disease, infliximab treatment was considered. Treatment with infliximab and a small dose of oral prednisolone afforded successful withdrawal of total parenteral nutrition and maintenance of a well-functioning graft without infectious complications for 5 years since the administration of the first dose of infliximab. CONCLUSION Infliximab is effective as maintenance therapy for recurrent chronic ulcerative ileitis in an isolated ITx patient.
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