Bubble columns with constant-flow nozzles were used to obtain high values of gas holdup e and volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa for highly viscous liquids at relatively low gas-flow rates. Effects of various factors on £, kLa, mass transfer coefficient kL, bubble volume VBformed at constant-flow nozzle, and gas-liquid interfacial area a were investigated experimentally. Liquid viscosity, superficial gas velocity, number of constant-flow nozzles and pitch affected e, kLa, kL, VBand a. The experimental results were correlated by dimensionless equations, which were compared with previous works. For a given energy input, a in this bubble column was larger than that in conventional bubble columns with a perforated plate as gas distributor.
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