Extreme environments sometimes support surprisingly high meiofaunal diversity. We sampled runoff from the acidic hot springs of Unzen, Japan. This is the type locality of Thermozodium esakiiRahm, 1937, the only tardigrade in the class Mesotardigrada, which remains contentious in the absence of corroboration or supporting specimens. Our sampling revealed at least three species of arthropods, four rotifers, and five nematodes living in the hot (ca. 40°C) and acidic (ca. pH 2.5) water, but no tardigrades.
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