Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is widely used to machine hard materials, such as tungsten carbide; however, the machining rate and surface quality are low. In this research, the effects of mixing electrically conductive carbon nanofiber (CnF), semiconductive silicon (Si) powder, and insulative alumina powder (Al2O3) at different concentrations in a dielectric fluid were studied by observing single discharge craters and hole machining performance in the EDM of ultrafine particle type tungsten carbide. Craters obtained using carbon nanofiber and alumina were much smaller than in oil-only conditions. In contrast, The results show that adding CnF significantly improved the material removal rate under all conditions. Si and Al2O3 powders only improved the machining performance at a high discharge energy of 110 V. Furthermore, improvement in surface roughness was observed prominently at high voltages for all the powders. Among the three powders, alumina was found to improve the surface roughness the most.
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