Background: Gastric cancer (GC) has been classified based on molecular profiling like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG), and attempts have been made to establish therapeutic strategies based on these classifications. However, it is difficult to predict the survival according to these classifications especially in radically resected patients. We aimed to establish a new molecular classification of GC which predicts the survival in patients undergoing radical gastrectomy. Methods: The present study included 499 Japanese patients with advanced GC undergoing radical (R0/R1) gastrectomy. Whole-exome sequencing, panel sequencing, and gene expression profiling were conducted (High-tech Omics-based Patient Evaluation [Project HOPE]). We classified patients according to TCGA and ACRG subtypes, and evaluated the clinicopathologic features and survival. Then, we attempted to classify patients according to their molecular profiles associated with biological features and survival (HOPE classification). Results: TCGA and ACRG classifications failed to predict the survival. In HOPE classification, hypermutated (HMT) tumors were selected first as a distinctive feature, and T-cell-inflamed expression signature-high (TCI) tumors were then extracted. Finally, the remaining tumors were divided by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) expression signature. HOPE classification significantly predicted the disease-specific and overall survival (p < 0.001 and 0.020, respectively). HMT + TCI showed the best survival, while EMT-high showed the worst survival. The HOPE classification was successfully validated in the TCGA cohort. Conclusions: We established a new molecular classification of gastric cancer that predicts the survival in patients undergoing radical surgery.
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