Immune and inflammatory systems are controlled by multiple cytokines, including interleukins and interferons. These cytokines exert their biological functions through Janus tyrosine kinases and signal transducer and activators of transcription (STATs). The cytokine-inducible SH2 proteins (CIS) and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are a family of intracellular proteins, several of which have emerged as key physiological regulators of cytokine responses, including those that regulate the inflammatory system. Several recent advances have been made in this field, including treatment of inflammatory diseases by modulating extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways.
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