Background: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is associated with accelerated cognitive decline and greater risk of dementia. However, the neural correlates of MBI have not been completely elucidated. Objective: The study aimed to investigate the correlation between cognitively normal participants and participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: The study included 30 cognitively normal participants and 13 participants with aMCI (20 men and 23 women; mean age, 76.9 years). The MBI was assessed using the MBI checklist (MBI-C). Region of interest (ROI)-to-ROI analysis was performed to examine the correlation between MBI-C scores and functional connectivity (FC) of the default mode network, salience network, and frontoparietal control network (FPCN). Age, Mini-Mental State Examination score, sex, and education were used as covariates. A p-value of 0.05, with false discovery rate correction, was considered significant. Results: A negative correlation was observed between the MBI-C total score and FC of the left posterior parietal cortex with the right middle frontal gyrus. A similar result was obtained for the MBI-C affective dysregulation domain score. Conclusion: FPCN dysfunction was detected as a neural correlate of MBI, especially in the affective dysregulation domain. This dysfunction may be associated with cognitive impairment in MBI and conversion of MBI to dementia; however, further longitudinal data are needed to examine this relationship.
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