The nervous and immune systems control whole-body homeostasis and respond to various types of tissue injury, including stroke, in a coordinated manner. Cerebral ischaemia and subsequent neuronal cell death activate resident or infiltrating immune cells, which trigger neuroinflammation that affects functional prognosis after stroke. Inflammatory immune cells exacerbate ischaemic neuronal injury after the onset of brain ischaemia; however, some of the immune cells thereafter change their function to neural repair. The recovery processes after ischaemic brain injury require additional and close interactions between the nervous and immune systems through various mechanisms. Thus, the brain controls its own inflammation and repair processes after injury via the immune system, which provides a promising therapeutic opportunity for stroke recovery.
ASJC Scopus subject areas