Background: There are several clinical diagnostic criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). However, these criteria have not been validated in detail, and no criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) are currently available. Objective: This study proposes new diagnostic criteria for ABPA/ABPM, consisting of 10 components, and compares its sensitivity and specificity to existing methods. Methods: Rosenberg-Patterson criteria proposed in 1977, the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) criteria proposed in 2013, and this new criteria were applied to 79 cases with pathological ABPM and the control population with allergic mucin in the absence of fungal hyphae (n = 37), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (n = 64), Aspergillus-sensitized severe asthma (n = 26), or chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 24). These criteria were also applied to the 179 cases with physician-diagnosed ABPA/ABPM in a nationwide Japanese survey. Results: The sensitivity for pathological ABPM with Rosenberg-Patterson criteria, ISHAM criteria, and this new criteria were 25.3%, 77.2%, and 96.2%, respectively. The sensitivity for physician-diagnosed ABPA/ABPM were 49.2%, 82.7%, and 94.4%, respectively. The areas under the curve for the receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.85, 0.90, and 0.98, respectively. The sensitivity for ABPM cases that were culture-positive for non-Aspergillus fungi were 13.0%, 47.8%, and 91.3%, respectively. Conclusions: The new diagnostic criteria, compared with existing criteria, showed better sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing ABPA/ABPM.
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